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IMPLEMENTATION OF JIGSAW IN TEACHING READING
This chapter desribed the reasons for conducting the research and it deals with several points : introduction that concerns with background of the problems, identification of the problems, limitation of the problems, formulation of the problems, objectives of the research, significance of the research, and definition of terms as will be elaborated in the following sections.
1.1. Background of the Problems
In learning English, students are expected to be able to master all language skills of English; listening, speaking, reading, and writing. It is based on the goal of teaching English. To be able to use English well, reading is one of the important skills. English reading becomes a more and more important in intenational communication. However, teachers of English often ignore the importance of reading in the classroom. Whereas, students need reading skill to get information from books, magazines, novels, essays, and internet. Therefore, the need for reading and taking out the information from various text above seems to be extremely important.
English is taught as a foreign language in Indonesia. Hence, there are some problems in teaching reading. One of the problems that can be found is the method used by the teachers. Many kinds of teaching method may result bad or negative effects on students’ reading skill. So many students are hard to get the idea or meaning of the text. Another problem is lack of the students’ participation in the classroom. For example when the teacher dominates the activity in the classroom, the students may feel like they do not have enough chance to participate actively. The lack of participation may result in lack of motivation. And lack of motivation may influence students’ reading comprehension.
Based on the researcher’s pre-observasion at SMAN 2 Bojong Kenyot, it was found that the students were still confused in determining the main idea of the text, making reference and inference, finding synonyms and vocabulary. From the teacher’s information in that school, it was reported that most of students still had problems in comprehending the text. Many students got under the KKM and they had difficulties to comprehending the English text.
One of the problems may be that the students feel bored because the techniques used by the teacher are monotonous. There are many students who felt sleepy when the teacher explained the materials. It may be because the teachers do not use good technique or method in the class. It is necessary for English teacher to make reading materials more interesting and motivating so that the students can progress in reading.
Based on the statement above, the writer applied cooperative learning in teaching reading comprehension. Cooperative learning is one of learning strategies which is considered applicable and useful in increasing students’ reading comprehension and make the students active during the learning process (Majid, 2007). Students must work in groups to complete tasks collectively. Furthermore, the teacher’s role changes from giving information to facilitating students’ learning. Everyone succeeds when the group succeeds. Cooperative learning has some technique, they are; STAD, discussion, mind mapping, think pair and share, jigsaw, role playing etc.
In this research, he researcher wants to make a situation where the students feel enjoy in learning process so that they will be motivated to read the text. The researcher tries to apply the technique that may be effective to improve the students’ reading ability to solve the problems in comprehending the text. the writer applied jigsaw technique in teaching reading. Jigsaw technique is a special form of information gap in which each member of a group is given some specific information and the goal is to pool all information to achieve some objectives (Brown, 2001:179). Jigsaw cooperative learning is one of the cooperative learning methods. Jigsaw cooperative learning is developed by Aronson. Jigsaw is used firstly in 1971 in Austin, Texas. The purpose of jigsaw reading is to develop student’ mindset to think creatively. It makes the students to be independent. It also keeps existence of high level responsibility.
Furthermore, this research will be focused on the implementation of jigsaw in teaching reading toward reading skills. The researcher used this technique to investigate what is aspects of reading most improved when jigsaw is implemented in teaching reading. This strategy is choosen since the Senior High School students have monologue/essay, i.e. descriptive, report, recount, narrative, procedure texts and functional texts, i.e. advertisement, brochure, schedule, message, notice, invitation. Based on the information from the teacher, Jigsaw Cooperative Learning has not applied yet by teacher of SMAN 2 Bojong Kenyot.
They were as problem and since the technique had never been used there, the writer was really interested in “Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension Using Jigsaw Cooperative Learning and Which Aspect of Reading significantly improve After Being Taught by Jigsaw Cooperative Learning at the Second Grade of SMAN 2 Bojong Kenyot.
1.2. Identification of the problems
In relation to background of the problem above, the following problems can be identified:
- The students get difficulties in comprehending the reading text, finding the main idea, getting information from the text, finding the details, finding synonyms or antonyms in particular words, getting the answer to the questions based on the text and making inference from the text. Based on Pre-Observation, in learning process, the teachers only apply the same technique for all types of reading texts.
- The teacher do not realize the appropriate technique or method of teaching reading especially which deals with active learning which needs to be applied in various types of text the students’ interaction.
- In learning process, the teachers only apply the same technique for all types of reading texts. The result is that the students do not have any ideas in their mind of their reading.
- The students get bored while learning process because the technique used by the teacher are monotonous.
- The students are lazy to memorize the words and practice English in their daily life. So that they are lack of vocabulary.
1.3. Limitation of the Problem
In line with the identification of the problems, the focus of the research was on the teaching reading comprehension using Jigsaw technique. The decision was taken by considering the importance of Jigsaw technique as one of Cooperative Learning’s strategies that was useful to increase students’ reading comprehension achievement. The writter assumed that there should be some suitable techniques in teaching reading which could motivate the students to read all the text so they could understand the information.
1.4. Formulation of the Problems
Based on the limitation of the problem above, the researcher formulates the research problems as follows:
- Is there any significant improvement of students’ reading comprehension achievement after implementing Jigsaw Cooperative Learning in teaching reading narrative text at the second year students of SMA Negeri 2 Bojong kenyot?
- Which aspects of reading significantly improve after using Jigsaw in teaching reading at the second year of SMAN 2 Bojong Kenyot?
1.5. Objectives of the Research
Based on the formulation of the problems above, objectives of the research is as follows :
- To find out whether there is an improvement of the students’ reading comprehension achievement after being taught through Jigsaw Cooperative Learning.
- To investigate which aspects of reading significantly improve when Jigsaw used in teaching reading .
1.6. Significances of the Research
The results of this study are expected to be beneficial both theoretically and practically elaborated in the following section.
The results of the research are expected to support theories dealing with Jigsaw Cooperative Learning, as disscussed in chapter 2
- The results of this research are expected to give information to the English teachers, especially in guiding students to read text effective way.
- It is also expected to encourage students’ awareness of identfying the sepcific information in various types of reading texts through Jigsaw Cooperative Learning.
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